Anabolic-androgenic steroid effects on endocrinology and lipid metabolism in athletes

Cyclic peptides are polypeptide chains which contain a circular sequence of bonds. This can be through a connection between the amino and carboxyl ends of the peptide, for example in cyclosporin ; a connection between the amino end and a side chain, for example in bacitracin ; the carboxyl end and a side chain, for example in colistin ; or two side chains or more complicated arrangements, for example in amanitin . Many cyclic peptides have been discovered in nature and many others have been synthesized in the laboratory. Their length ranges from just two amino acid residues to hundreds. In nature they are frequently antimicrobial or toxic; in medicine they have various applications, for example as antibiotics and immunosuppressive agents. [1]

Lastly, it is important to understand that these values are not the end-all-be-all in determining the capabilities of an anabolic steroid. But they should be the first place to start when reading and researching different compounds. The figures discovered using the Hershberger Assay provides us a general and reasonable idea of the anabolic and androgenic qualities of a given anabolic steroid. Within science and medicine, these are the very first initial tests that are conducted when a new anabolic steroid is discovered or developed in order to determine whether or not further testing and research into a particular anabolic steroid is worth the time and effort or not. If the Hershberger Assay of a given anabolic steroid provides desirable anabolic and androgenic values, it would likely progress to the next stage of testing, and ultimately towards human clinical trials.

An important note; there are very few anabolic androgenic steroids females can use safely as many cause strong virilization effects. However, there are a few that are very mild and if the female uses mildly and keeps a close eye on her well-being she greatly increases her potential for staying safe. For any female who supplements if signs of virilization begin to show she should immediately discontinue use and the effects will dissipate; it is when the symptoms are ignored and use continues that they can become damaging. Further, in regards to children, adolescents should not touch these powerful hormones by any means as they can be very damaging to their growth and development and the damage is irreversible.

Androgens are responsible for the growth spurt of adolescence and for the eventual termination of linear growth which is brought about by the fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers. In children, exogenous androgens accelerate linear growth rates, but may cause a disproportionate advancement in bone maturation. Use over long periods may result in fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers and termination of growth process. Androgens have been reported to stimulate the production of red blood cells by enhancing the production of erythropoietic stimulating factor.

Anabolic-androgenic steroid effects on endocrinology and lipid metabolism in athletes

anabolic-androgenic steroid effects on endocrinology and lipid metabolism in athletes

Androgens are responsible for the growth spurt of adolescence and for the eventual termination of linear growth which is brought about by the fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers. In children, exogenous androgens accelerate linear growth rates, but may cause a disproportionate advancement in bone maturation. Use over long periods may result in fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers and termination of growth process. Androgens have been reported to stimulate the production of red blood cells by enhancing the production of erythropoietic stimulating factor.

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