The immediate goal of the Friends is to raise funds to support ongoing research programs in liver disease, including hepatitis C, and to hire new investigators and researchers. A longer-term goal is to raise funds to establish two or more endowed chairs in liver research at Saint Louis University. The group's ultimate goal is to establish a named, endowed liver research facility consolidating all of the Center's activities into a single location.
The least expensive states for preschool-age care in a childcare center, with costs ranging from less than $4,000 a year ($333 a month) to around $7,000 a year are Mississippi, Kentucky, Louisiana, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Idaho, West Virginia, South Carolina, and Alabama. To find out more about daycare options and costs in your area, contact your local Child Care Resource and Referral (CCR&R) agency. More than 850 CCR&R agencies throughout the country provide families with information about local childcare options and resources.
Most patients with back pain will not benefit from surgery. However, if anatomic abnormalities consistent with the distribution of pain are identified, surgery can be considered in persons who have experienced significant functional disabilities and in those with unremitting pain, especially pain lasting longer than 12 months despite multiple nonsurgical treatments. Good evidence supports the use of spinal fusion for treating back pain caused by fractures, infections, progressive deformity, or instability with spondylolisthesis. 7 Spinal decompression, nerve root decompression, and spinal fusion have been extensively evaluated for the treatment of degenerative disorders of the spine, mostly with short-term outcomes, yielding conflicting results and questionable patient benefit. 39 Disk arthroplasty (replacing the original intervertebral disk with an artificial one) appears to be as effective as lumbar fusion for short-term relief of chronic low back pain, but there is no evidence of long-term relief, and concerns exist regarding the durability of the artificial disks. Intradiscal electrothermal therapy is a technique that applies heat to a damaged disk through a catheter, causing collagen contraction for structural support and ablating nearby pain-sensing nerves for pain reduction. It has been shown to provide modest pain relief, but little functional improvement. 40