Varedi and Bohluli (2015) reviewed the English literature about the safety and effectiveness of autologous blood injection in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic recurrent temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation. These investigators highlighted the key trials and recent directions about this modality and discussed about the mechanism, advantages, and disadvantages of this approach. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, and Ovid Medline databases to identify articles reporting on the injection of autologous blood for treatment of chronic recurrent dislocation of TMJ. Other references cited in the retrieved reports, as well as the "related articles" tool in PubMed Medline, were also checked to improve the search and, if relevant, were included in the study. The search was restricted to articles published in the English language. A total of 7 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The selected articles included 4 prospective clinical trials and 3 case report articles. The authors concluded that there are a few articles about the clinical use of autologous blood for treating patients with chronic recurrent TMJ dislocation. Reviewing of the literature showed that there are successful results about this modality, but there are still some concerns about it in terms of the effect of the injected blood on the articular cartilage and formation of fibrous or bony ankylosis. Well-designed studies are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of autologous blood injection in the treatment of TMJ dislocation.
40 mcg inhaled twice daily, approximately 12 hours apart, is the recommended starting dose. For patients who do not respond adequately to 40 mcg after 2 weeks of therapy, increasing the dosage to 80 mcg twice daily may provide additional asthma control. The maximum recommended dosage is 80 mcg twice daily. The starting dosage is based on the severity of asthma, including consideration of the patients’ current control of asthma symptoms and risk of future exacerbation. Improvement in asthma symptoms can occur within 24 hours of the beginning of treatment and should be expected within the first or second week, but maximum benefit should not be expected until 3 to 4 weeks of therapy. Improvement in pulmonary function is usually apparent within 1 to 4 weeks after the start of therapy. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Expert Panel defines low dose therapy as 80 to 160 mcg/day, medium dose as 161 to 320 mcg/day, and high dose therapy as more than 320 mcg/day for children ages 5 to 11 years. The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines define low dose therapy as 100 mcg/day in this age group. Titrate to the lowest effective dose once asthma stability is achieved.
Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) was first recognized as a distinct entity in 1938, although it was called “congenital hypoplastic anemia” at that time. Diamond Blackfan Anemia (“DBA”) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, characterized by a failure of the bone marrow (the center of the bone where blood cells are made) to produce red blood cells. This failure causes DBA patients to become severely anemic. It is important to note that this anemia is not the result of a deficiency in iron, vitamin B-12, folate, or erythropoietin, which is a blood cell stimulating factor. Although a number of theories regarding the cause of DBA have been proposed, it is now widely accepted that DBA is a ribosomal protein disease. The disorder results from an intrinsic progenitor cell defect in which erythroid progenitors and precursors are highly sensitive to death by apoptosis (self-destruction).