Hydroxylation of steroids by microorganisms

The liver also plays an important role in vitamin and mineral ( iron & copper ) storage. About 80% of the body's vitamin A stores are concentrated in fat droplets within the stellate cells of the liver. In pathological conditions like hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis the stellate cells lose vitamin A, transform into fibroblasts or myofibroblasts and begin producing large amounts of collagen and adhesive glycoproteins. * Normal vitamin A reserves are enough to prevent a deficiency for about 10 months. The liver also contains about a year supply of B12. Vitamin D stores equal about 3-4 months. Small amounts of Vitamins E and K and Vitamin C are stored in the liver to facilitate liver functions.

The quantity of diclofenac absorbed through the skin is proportional to the size of the treated area, and depends on both the total dose applied and the degree of skin hydration. After topical application to approximately 400 cm 2 of skin, the extent of systemic exposure as determined by plasma concentration of Voltarol Emulgel Extra Strength 2% w/w Gel (2 applications/day) was equivalent to diclofenac % gel (4 applications/day). The relative bioavailability of diclofenac (AUC ratio) for Voltarol Emulgel Extra Strength 2% w/w Gel versus tablet was % on day 7 (for equivalent diclofenac sodium dose). Absorption was not modified by a moisture and vapour permeable bandage.

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

The low systemic absorption of topical diclofenac renders overdosage extremely unlikely. However, undesirable effects, similar to those observed following an overdose of diclofenac tablets can be expected if topical diclofenac is inadvertently ingested (1 tube of 100g contains the equivalent of 1000mg diclofenac sodium). In the event of accidental ingestion, resulting in significant systemic side-effects, general therapeutic measures normally adopted to treat poisoning with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be used. Gastric decontamination and the use of activated charcoal should be considered, especially within a short time of ingestion.

Hydroxylation of steroids by microorganisms

hydroxylation of steroids by microorganisms

The low systemic absorption of topical diclofenac renders overdosage extremely unlikely. However, undesirable effects, similar to those observed following an overdose of diclofenac tablets can be expected if topical diclofenac is inadvertently ingested (1 tube of 100g contains the equivalent of 1000mg diclofenac sodium). In the event of accidental ingestion, resulting in significant systemic side-effects, general therapeutic measures normally adopted to treat poisoning with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be used. Gastric decontamination and the use of activated charcoal should be considered, especially within a short time of ingestion.

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