Opioids are a class of compounds that elicit analgesic (pain killing) effects in humans and animals by binding to the µ-opioid receptor within the central nervous system . The following table lists opioid and non-opioid analgesic drugs and their relative potencies . Values for the potencies represent opioids taken orally unless another route of administration is provided. As such, their bioavailabilities differ, and they may be more potent when taken intravenously . Methadone is different from most opioids considering its potency can vary depending on how long it is taken. Acute use, 1–3 days, yields a potency about × stronger than that of morphine and chronic use (7 days+) yields a potency about to 5× that of morphine due to methadone being stored in fat tissue, thus giving higher serum levels with longer use. [ citation needed ] Similarly, the effect of tramadol increases after consecutive dosing due to the accumulation of its active metabolite and an increase of the oral bioavailability in chronic use, this effect becomes less significant again with even longer use as tolerance develops. [ citation needed ]
Turmeric is found to be effective in treating acne primarily because of its antibacterial and antiseptic properties. These properties work in fighting pimple breakouts, thus providing that healthy, youthful glow to the skin. It does not just help in clearing inflammation and scars caused by acne, but it also reduces the secretion of oil from the sebaceous glands. For this reason, turmeric has been used as an ingredient for several beauty products for years. It is a natural and inexpensive way of treating various skin problems and ultimately achieving a flawless skin.
Neural injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were applied to males of both groups to test for neurogenesis . Analysis showed that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was regulated through the androgen receptor in the wild-type male rats, but not in the TMF male rats. To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide , an antiandrogen drug that competes with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for androgen receptors , and dihydrotestosterone were administered to normal male rats. Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells.